For further reading 


IT & HPT terminology

Download a graphical process map and short definitions of key terms utilized in instructional technology and human performance technology. 


The following references were utilized in the creation of this website. 

About Piaget. (n.d.). Jean Piaget Society | Society for the Study of Knowledge and Development. 

Ausubel, D. P. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51(5), 267-272. 

B. F. Skinner. (n.d.). Department of Psychology. 

B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950 [Photograph]. (n.d.). Wikipedia. 

Biographical information. (2020, August 18). B. F. Skinner Foundation. 

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42.

CentralReach. (2022, June 10). The story of Tom Gilbert. CentralReach | Autism and IDD Care Software. 

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Holum, A. (1991). Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator. 

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453-494). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Radical behaviorism. In Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed., pp. 29-69). Pearson. 

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.

Geary Rummler [Photograph]. (n.d.). RummlerBrache Group. 

Gilbert, T. F. (1978). Human competence: Engineering worthy performance. McGraw-Hill. 

In memoriam: Joe Harless. (n.d.). The Learning Guild: Community & Resources for Learning Professionals | The Learning Guild. 

Jean Piaget in Ann Arbor [Photograph]. (1967, January 1). Wikipedia. 

Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development. (2022, November 4). Structural Learning | Advancing Metacognitive Classroom Practice. 

Joe Harless [Photograph]. (n.d.). EPPIC – Pursuing Performance. 

Kurt, S. (2020, July 11). Lev Vygotsky - Sociocultural theory of cognitive development - Educational technology. Educational Technology. 

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press.

Molenda, M., & Boling, E. (2008). Chapter 4: Creating. In A. Januszewski & M. Molenda (Eds.), Educational technology: A definition with commentary (pp. 81-139). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

Narum, C. (2018, July 11). Uncovering performance gaps with front end analysis. Corporate + Enterprise Learning Solutions | Dashe & Thomson. 

Navigating front-end analysis. (n.d.). The Learning Guild: Community & Resources for Learning Professionals | The Learning Guild. 

Pershing, J. (2006). Human performance technology fundamentals. In J. Pershing (Ed.), Handbook of human performance technology: Principles, practices, and potential (3rd ed., pp. 5-34). Pfeiffer.

Pershing, J. A., Lee, J., & Cheng, J. (2008). Current status, future trends, and issues in human performance technology, part 1: Influential domains, current status, and recognition of HPT. Performance Improvement, 47(1), 9-17.

Portrait of Lev Vygotsky, Russian Psychologist [Photograph]. (n.d.). Wikipedia. 

Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.). (2018). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (4th ed.). Pearson.

Remembering the late Joe H. Harless on the anniversary of his birth. (2019, November 8). EPPIC - Pursuing Performance. 

Rummler, G. A. (2007). The past is prologue: An eyewitness account of HPT. Performance Improvement, 46(10), 5-9.

Skinner, B. F. (1954). The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 21(1), 86-97. 

Stolovitch, H. D. (2015). Human performance technology: Research and theory to practice. Performance Improvement, 54(3). 

Sweller, J., Van Merriënboer, J. J., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive architecture and instructional design: 20 years later. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 261-292. 

10 standards of HPT. (n.d.). sites@gsu - Blogs for Georgia State University | Powered by Edublogs. 

The 3 levels of performance. (2022, November 29). 

The perils in chronicling the emergence of human performance technology – Rummler 2003. (2021, November 24). EPPIC - Pursuing Performance. 

Thomas F. Gilbert [Photograph]. (n.d.). EPPIC – Pursuing Performance. 

20 interventions — The Thiagi group. (2015, April 4). The Thiagi Group. 

Van Tiem, D. M., Mosely, J. L., & Dessinger, J. C. (2004). Performance technology - defined. In D. M. Van Tiem, J. L. Moseley, & J. C. Dessinger (Eds.), Fundamentals of performance technology (pp. 2-20). International Society for Performance Improvement.

Wilmoth, F. S., Prigmore, C., & Bray, M. (2010). HPT models. In R. Watkins & D. Leigh (Eds.), Handbook of improving performance in the workplace, vol. 2: Selecting and implementing performance interventions (pp. 5-26). International Society for Performance Improvement.

About the author

Michelle Gilbert is a graduate student in the M.S.Ed. Instructional Systems Technology program at Indiana University Bloomington. Since 2015, she has been an educator and educational technologist at internationally recognized online holistic health institutes.

Michelle believes that the online holistic health education sector is misrepresented in the public eye, and that improved instructional design and organizational change would create much-needed shifts in learner outcomes and reputation. She is passionate about adult e-learning and hopes to contribute to this needed change in her field.